Chapter 8

Michael J. Zickar, Ph.D.

Department of Psychology, Bowling Green State University

mzickar@bgnet.bgsu.edu

 

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The World of Attitudes

Attitudes = an evaluation or belief of object that may influence behavior

Three Components

Cognitive

Emotional

Behavioral

Can be explicit and implicit

Attitude Formation

Classical & operant conditioning

Mere Exposure effect

over time you get a positive attitude

Validity effect

Attitude Change/Persuasion

Communicator (Source)

Similarity to audience

Power, trust, expertise, attractiveness

Communication (Message)

Two-sided message works best

Fear works in moderate amounts

Change (Cont)

Medium

Face to face best

Audience (Target)

forewarning helps

changing old attitudes very difficult

Special Techniques

Foot-in-Door

Ask for something small, then ask for something bigger

Door-in-Face

Ask for something outrageous,then back down

Lowballing

Get a commitment and then raise stakes

Cognitive Dissonance

When two thoughts/behaviors/attitudes are inconsistent, we feel uncomfortable

Must change thoughts/behaviors/attitude to be consistent

Attribution Theory

Internal versus External Causes

Fundamental attribution error

Assume internal causes for other people

Self-serving bias

Internal causes for good things

External causes for bad things

Prejudices

Prejudice -- negative evaluation of entire group of people

Stereotypes--fixed, simple ideas about traits, attitudes, and behaviors of particular group

Discrimination--negative behavior aimed at particular group

Social Influence

Conformity

Changing attitudes to be consistent with others

Aschís Line Study

Competence of group

Public versus private

Serial position within group

Obedience

Milgramís Obedience Studies

When ordered to press button, most people did

Implications for Research in General

Full debriefing

Deception in research much more common

Attraction

Factors influencing attraction

Proximity

Closer is better

Physical attractiveness

Similarity

Equity theory

Attempt to balance the contributions of all participants

Altruism

Prosocial behavior

More is less

Diffusion of responsibility

Group cohesion

Modeling of helping behavior

Group Behavior

Social Facilitation

Change in behavior due to presence of people

Social Loafing

Group members work less

Group Polarization

Individuals become more extreme in groups

Risky shift

Group Behavior (Cont.)

Groupthink

Feelings of invulnerability

Belief in rightness

Discredit contrary information

Pressure to conform

Stereotype outgroup members

Need a formal devilís advocate

Mob behavior

Deindividuation

Lose self-awareness and join the mob