Chapter 16

Michael J. Zickar, Ph.D.

Department of Psychology, Bowling Green State University



Abnormal Psychology

Abnormal behavior


socially unacceptable



DSM-IV (Diagnosis)

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

Improve reliability of diagnoses

Tie in with existing research

Five Axes

Major disorders, personality disorders, medical conditions, environmental problems, global assessment

Anxiety Disorders

Generalized anxiety disorder

no one cause of anxiety

Phobic Disorders

associated with specific object or situation

must be excessive and irrational

Social phobias--extreme fear of criticism

Agoraphobia--fear of open places

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders


persistent & uncontrollable thoughts


compulsive rituals that try to hid obsessions

often have trouble relating with others

Mood Disorders

Major depression

Extreme sadness

Little interest in daily activities

Cognitive distortions

Bipolar disorders

Fluctuates between mania and depression

Causes of Depression


Life experiences

Negative cognitions

Problems with relationships

Warning Signs of Suicide

S: Sex

A: Age

D: Depression

P: Previous attempt

E: Ethanol abuse

R: Rational thought

S: Social supports lacking

O: Organized plan

N: No spouse

S: Sickness


Take all threats seriously

Talk about the stressors

Get them professional help

Alert other people close to the person

Dissociative Disorders

Dissociative Identity Disorder--Existence of two or more identities within individual

Personality Disorders

Inflexible/maladaptive strategies for dealing with world

Paranoid Personality--mistrust everyone

Dependent Personality--always clinging

Narcissistic Personality--focussed on self

Antisocial Personality--irresponsible, no guilt, lack of fear of punishment


Lack of reality testing, deterioration of functioning

Thought disorders

Perceptual disorders

Emotional disorders




Substance Abuse

How to determine whether use is abuse?

Binge drinking among college students


Biological model

Learning model