Any good book on the history of mathematics will supply you with dozens of interesting facts about the evolution of our understanding of ; a couple of these are listed below. In addition, literally hundreds of technical and semi-technical articles have been written about over the years; I've included a few of these, too.

A trip to any good library will easily yield more information than I could ever hope to catalogue here. (And please consider visiting a library before emailing me with your questions. I am neither a historian nor an expert on ; I'm just a well-informed fan!)

- P. Beckmann,
A History of Pi,
4th. ed., Golem Press, 1970.
- J. M. Borwein and P. B. Borwein,
Pi and the AGM,
Wiley-Interscience, 1987.
- C. B. Boyer and U. Merzbach,
A History of Mathematics,
2nd. ed., Wiley, 1991.
- F. Cajori,
A History of Mathematics,
3rd. ed., Chelsea, 1980.
- H. Dörrie, 100 Great Problems of Elementary Mathematics: Their History and Solution, translated by D. Antin, Dover, 1965.

- H. C. Schepler,
"The Chronology of Pi",
Mathematics Magazine,
Vol. 23, 1950, pp. 165 -- 170, 216 -- 228, 279 -- 283.
- Stan Wagon,
"Is
Normal?",
The Mathematical Intelligencer,
Vol. 7, No. 3, 1985, pp. 65 -- 67.
- J. W. Wrench, Jr., "The Evolution of Extended Decimal Approximations to ", The Mathematics Teacher, Vol. 53, 1960, pp. 644 -- 650.

- G. Almkvist and B. Berndt,
"Gauss, Landen, Ramanujan, the Arithmetic-Geometric Mean,
Ellipses,
,
and the Ladies Diary",
The American Mathematical Monthly,
Vol. 95, No. 1, 1988, pp. 585 -- 608.
- E. F. Assmus, "Pi",
The American Mathematical Monthly,
Vol. 92, 1985, pp. 213 -- 214.
- David H. Bailey,
"The Computation of
to 29,360,000 Decimal Digits Using Borweins' Quartically
Convergent Algorithm",
Mathematics of Computation,
Vol. 50, No. 181,
1988, pp. 283 -- 296.
- J. M. Borwein and P. B. Borwein,
"The Arithmetic-Geometric Mean and Fast Computation of
Elementary Functions",
SIAM Review,
Vol. 26, No. 3, 1984, pp. 351 -- 366.
- J. M. Borwein, P. B. Borwein, and D. H. Bailey,
"Ramanujan, Modular Equations, and Approximations to
or How to Compute One Billion Digits of
",
The American Mathematical Monthly,
Vol. 96, No. 3, 1989, pp. 201 -- 219.
- Dario Castellanos,
"The Ubiquitous
",
Mathematics Magazine,
Vol. 61, 1988, pp. 67 -- 98, 148 -- 163.
- G. Miel,
"Of Calculations Past and Present: The Archimedean Algorithm",
The American Mathematical Monthly,
Vol. 90, No. 1, 1983, pp. 17 -- 35.
- S. Rabinowitz and S. Wagon, "A spigot algorithm for the digits of ", The American Mathematical Monthly, Vol. 102, 1995, pp. 195 -- 203.

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Neal Carothers - carother@bgnet.bgsu.edu